The reforms of the 1999 law mean that a number of old cases would be decided differently today. In Beswick v. Beswick, while the House of Lords ruled that Ms Beswick could expressly enforce a promise from her nephew to her late husband to pay her £5 a week as administrator of the will, the 1999 Act would also allow her to assert claims as a third party. In Scruttons Ltd v. Midland Silicones Ltd, it would have been possible for a stevedoring company to benefit from a limitation clause in a contract between a carrier and the owner of a damaged chemical drum. Lord Denning disagreed, arguing for the abolition of the rule, and Lord Reid expressed an opinion that if a bill of lading explicitly granted the benefit of a restriction to longshoreders, longshoreders gave the carrier the power to do so, and “difficulties in reviewing Stevedore`s change were overcome”, then the Stevedores could benefit. In The Eurymedon, Lord Reid`s inventive solution was applied when some Stauers also applied for an exclusion clause after abandoning a drill, with the consideration being deemed to be the Stauer that fulfilled their already existing contractual obligation in favour of the third party (the owner of the drill). However, none of these significant technical analyses are required, since any contract purporting to grant an advantage to a third party can, in principle, be performed by the third party.  Every time you enter into a contract, the other person is likely to expect to receive something to fulfill the terms of that contract. For performance contracts, this can be a bonus or reward, or simply continuous employment. Relatively few cases are filed directly by consumers, given the complexity of disputes, the costs and their value when claims are low.
In order to ensure that consumer protection laws are effectively enforced, the Competition and Markets Authority is responsible for bringing consumer law actions on behalf of consumers after receiving complaints. Under section 70 and Schedule 3 of the Consumer Rights Act, 2015, the CMA has the authority to collect and review complaints and then obtain injunctions in court to prevent businesses from using unfair terms (under all laws). The 2015 CRA is formally broader than the 1977 UCTA in that it covers all unfair terms, not only exceptional terms, but also narrower as it only applies to consumer contracts. According to Article 2, a consumer is a “person acting for purposes which are or are principally outside the commercial, commercial, craft or professional activity of that person”.  However, although the UK has always been able to opt for better protection, when transposing the Directive into national law it has chosen to follow the minimum requirements and not cover all contractual periods. .